3-Dimensional Free Forms
These structures are commonly known as Grid Shell Structures. The Geometry is a ‘Free Form’ shape and needs to be curved in order to provide inherent stiffness. The steel structure can be made using single elements, with bolted nodes, or can be welded in ladder segments.
[Translate to en_GB:] The Five-Star ART Rotana Hotel is located on Amwaj Island, a reclaimed island to the North of Manama. Each room faces the sea. Lindner scope: Canopy (1,650 m²): Existing of a single layer freeform steel structure of RHS tubes and solid steel nodes. Supported by 3.5 cones (bottom dia. approx. 2m), a lobe and a couple of wall supports at hotel building. Cladded with a mix of insulated aluminium and glass panels above lobby area and non-insulated aluminium and glass panels for outside lobby area. Facade (520 m²): Forming a 10m high curved entrance lobby underneath canopy lobe. Insulated glass panels (1.8m x 2.6m) supported by main mullions and horizontal bracings. Architectural mullions installed for visual effects.
[Translate to en_GB:] Four Funnel Structures, called "Elephant feet" by our client TAV International from Turkey, are designed with pipe elements. Pipe cross-section selection is an architectural decision as well as the choice of pipe cross-sections provide the structural rigidity which limits horizontal displacements under seismic loads. Full penetration welding is used at nodes located at half length of the elephant feet from the bottom. Site welding is kept at minimum by pre-production of the several separate parts between each node level before installation at the factory. Following completion of welding works, intumescent fire proofing application done on site. Interior glazing system designed with mechanical glass fixing only from top and bottom edges, with fixings connected to the horizontal steel ring element. After completion of the glass installation, the top of the funnel structures (Elephant Feet) is closed with a membrane roof to provide protection against rain and sun but the top connection between membrane structure and main roof of the terminal left open to provide natural air ventilation inside the structure.